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Monday, 1 February 2016

BRISIN: The Link Between Population, Economy and Governance - A major Indicator of Sustainable Development Goals In Nigeria


BRISIN: The Link Between Population, Economy and Governance - A major Indicator of Sustainable Development Goals In Nigeria

By Kazeem Kolawole Raji.

 

  It remains indelible in the record that President Muhammad Buhari, the civilian newly elected President of Africa's populous nation, Nigeria was on Friday 23rd September, 2015 in New York attended the 70th United Nations General Assembly amidst over 150 Heads of States at the summit which culminated into the signing of a new Declaration at the wake of the new world agenda, the Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs.





 http://t.co/sSwwJUM8dt
Babatunde Osotimehin, Executive Director and a global leader of public health, women’s empowerment and young people. Advocating for universal access to reproductive health.



  




THE REALITY

“Africa is the most rapidly urbanizing region of the world,” said the UN Secretary-General.

“Two-thirds of Africa's projected total population of 2.5 billion people will require urban services by 2063. And Africa needs to be ready”. Ban Ki-moon urged African Presidents who attended seminar themed Africa's urban Agenda  few hours into the UN 2015 Summit in New York.

President Buhari said ''Nigeria is proud to have availed her services to the United Nations in co-chairing the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing, whose work contributed in no small measure to the expansion of financing for development strategies.''


WHY BRISIN IS THE BEGINNING OF CHANGE 

Basic Registry and Information System In Nigeria, BRISIN provides the platform for cross checking primary source data across board, including Diasporas. That is the, data on every Citizen which would be readily accessible to, and consistently updated and reflected with all MDAs: The Federal government's BRISIN System is laying the foundation as Nigeria starts biometric data ‘harmonisation' with all agencies such as
Nigeria Immigration Service, Nigeria Police, electoral body INEC, NpopC, Federal Road Safety Commission, NIMC, NCC, Education, Health, Banks Interpol, and so on. 

BRISIN's provision and allocation of Social Security Number (NSSN) to every identifiable people in Nigeria, would serve as that enabler and pre-requisite for all and sundry to be afforded the privileges due to the citizenry by the state of Nigeria. It is this number that would enable them access every socio-economic and welfare in Nigeria just as it is else practiceable in every upwardly advancing countries in the world.



Dr Uwa Anthony, Head of BRISIN Implementation & Technical Committee




Reliable Data and Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. 


As heads of state adopt the resolution on the Sustainable Development Goals, state governments implicitly agree to prioritise the SDGs in their national development agenda and to participate in the regular monitoring of progress. They also undertake to invest in the areas of intervention, including statistical development, to ensure their full participation and effectiveness in the monitoring systems, both national and internationally.
Why Basic Registration and Information System in Nigeria
  [ BRISIN ] should be The Blueprint of Change? 

 The Managing Director of Dermo Impex Nigeria Ltd,  Dr. Anthony Uwa, recently spoke with reporters on the Basic Registry and Information System (BRISIN), which he described as the answer to the country’s multi-faceted challenges:

  Excerpts

 What is BRISIN all about?

The Basic Registry and Information System in Nigeria (BRISIN) is the first national integrated data and information infrastructure, intended to provide a solid foundation for planning and socio-economic growth in Nigeria. It is an innovative and all-encompassing approach to developing the nation. The system provides, in a holistic way, the answer to fight corruption and insecurity; it is the surest part to promote good governance and nurture true democratic process. In short, BRISIN is the cure Nigeria needs for all its ailments.
Do you mean that BRISIN is the antidote to most problems plaguing the country?

The issue of repositioning Nigeria to meet her dream of becoming one of the developed nations in the year 2020 requires a solid foundation and platform based on credible facts and figures to take Nigeria to the next level.  We all know that going to the next level requires, having an enduring system that would provide an unbiased and judicious approach to solving the problems of insecurity, create job opportunities, reduce corruption, fight internal criminalities and promote good governance.
We require adequate and reliable data to drive the execution of the MDG goals, to fight poverty   and improve social services to the citizens. BRISIN provides the compass for good management of the economy; it ensures transparent management of all forms of taxes and other revenues to solve the social problems of citizens; it is the answer to keeping a proper record of our citizens in the Diaspora and tap the infinite skills they have acquired just like the Japanese, Chinese, Indians and Brazilians did.
BRISIN permits the Federal Government, the States and Local government to have value added instruments for re-basing of GDP and same time promote local development and industrialization, which will improve the value of Naira against all other currencies.

Dr Uwa Anthony, Head of BRISIN Implementation & Technical Committee

Can you be more specific on the areas where BRISIN can make impact in Nigeria’s quest for development?


The mistakes and failures of the past with regard to misunderstanding, under-estimation, mis-application and under-utilization of data and information as a tool for national development, has reduced the government power of handling issues such as correct and adequate economic planning, effective fiscal and revenue management policies, vital instrument for fighting all insurgencies, productive and industrial development, Job creation at local level and the provision of social welfare services. BRISIN is the base foundation for the activation of major PPP projects that creates large employments and job opportunities.
A pilot scheme for the project will begin soon at the FCT, Abuja. The reason for the pilot is to enable the government understand and appreciate its potentials and socio-economic values especially in the following sectors, namely security and terrorism fighting, revenue collection and management, economic activity monitoring and management, health and education management, social services and welfare management, rural development and information management, ICT development, labor and employment creation, agricultural development and management.
BRISIN provides the clues to efficiency in environment management, trade and industry development, immigration, population and election management. Because it is all-embracing, it is a catalyst for job-creation by promoting economic activities and investments in all sectors. It provides accurate data and information required by foreign and local investors.
Because BRISIN is an infrastructure for information generation, it will immediately provide demographic data required for issuance of personal identity card, travel passport, elections and voting certificates, among others. It will generate reliable economic data useful for economic planning, fiscal and revenue development and management, job creation and employments. It will also assist in producing social data necessary for social justices, welfare, pensions etc. When BRISIN becomes activated country-wide, government will effectively monitor internal criminal acts, document and identify all acts of terrorism.
The benefits of this project are not limited. It will enhance the capacity of all tiers of government to control, monitor and transmit immigration/emigration and security information from the grass root, control and monitor demographic data and information of local population, monitor, control and transmit the economy of the rural area, give clear picture of investment opportunities and local raw materials, permit inventive youths to express themselves directly from their rural areas, protect the rights of the citizen without any distinction, promote social equality and economic development of women and create the solidarity to overcome economic imbalances with special caution for situations of marginalization, inconvenience and disability.
So why have we failed to embrace this important project?

Really, we have not failed but we have prevaricated and wasted much time. It is never too late. I recall that the Federal Executive Council, sometime in 2007, ratified and gave a final approval choosing FCT for the pilot project. A contract was signed between Federal Republic of Nigeria represented by National Planning Commission and Dermo Impex of Italy together with Dermo Impex Nig. Ltd. In 2010 President Jonathan approved the extension of the pilot phase to one state in each geo-political zone. The delay in executing the project can be explained by officials at the National Planning Commission and the FCT ministry.
Hopefully, we are now ready to move with the revival of the steering committee. We have assurances that after Easter, the project will move fast. The FCT ministry has been requested to release the appropriated funds including the project funds meant to pay for initial activities carried out on the project.
With competing demands, can the government provide enough funds for this project?
This project should be seen as the heart of the alternative economy, as it gives clear picture on what is really on ground and solution for improvement. Nigeria will know their actual value through appropriate measurement of the gross domestic product.
Considering the importance of BRISIN, its funding cannot be left to the Federal Government alone. May I suggest funding by Federal, State and Local Governments through direct funding   from the Excess Crude Account. It is also desirable to consider funding from SURE-P, PTDF and MDG accounts. I say so because BRISIN is the foundation for them to function well. I am also confident that Development Partners and Donor Agencies will be willing to support the realization of the project.

The crux of the matter is that Nigerians are fully aware that Identity Cards, Passports, Driver Licence, Bank Accounts opening documentation, Telephone ownership, Car ownership and, in fact virtually everything circulate around correct data collection, and the agency with the mandate on primary information on every individuals in Nigeria is the National Population Commission (NPopC) and with its 10 years census, there is a big gap that would not allow the planner to plan for a realistic Nigeria population.


The issue now is what instrument recognized worldwide to be the link between population, economy and governance, (Social Security Number) this number is produced on a verifiable primary sourced data and information which in Nigeria does not exist, the fact that there is no integrated data and information Infrastructure that should assist on daily updates, reducing the lacuna that presently exist in the responsibility of NpopC to a 10 years census, which actually gave room to the nascent of secondary data generation by different Agencies with national documentations ridiculously issued to non Nigerians that contributed to unavoidable bad image of Nigeria all over. 

The present situation of our economy coupled with the yelling of change from every Nigerian both home and in the Diaspora calls for strategic approach to totally overhaul the system of using the secondary data and return to the generally accepted primary data and information for all national documentations, planning and economic management. BRISIN will solve challenges in nation’s economy, as diaspora Nigerians tell Federal Government.


''This is a task that should have been accomplished decades ago. Now that it has fallen on our shoulders to discharge this responsibility, we should do so with the enthusiasm and commitment that is worthy of the cause.''
The United Nations, 2015)

“Just as the relative success of the MDGs was underpinned by national ownership, the Post-2015 and the SDGs frameworks must also be guided by national priorities and ownership. Domestic resource mobilization supplemented by improved terms of trade between industrial and developing economies should drive the implementation processes in both streams. The facilitation of remittances by migrant and overseas workers, as well as efficient tax collection are needed as complimentary sources of financing for development.”


THE MISSING LINK

Information Management and Social Security are fundamental output of correct data and information on citizens and the economy. The problem faced for non availability of primary sourced data has actually made all present data collection unreliable even for the issuance of documents without means of verifying the information supplied are internationally viewed as jungle practice. Primary sourced data and information has always been the basis for determining credibility (the right to a passport, the right to vote, the right to participate in social welfare programs, the right for identification among others. No secondary data anywhere has ever been utilised to confer any national documentation as currently obtained in Nigeria. This poses setback to national development  and little wonder why average Nigerian document presented abroad is not duly accord recognition as genuine in foreign country, simply due to the fact that information that precedes the issuance of Nigerian documents are majorly secondary sourced and cannot be verified.

 Kazeem Kolawole Raji, National Coordinator, ICT for BRISIN
 Primary data generated from origin are traceable to foundation home including but not limited to births and deaths registry. This has been the absolute condition that should precede any documentation including but not limited to national ID systems.

Nigeria cannot afford to delay herself in particular to sustaining the developmental goals achieved. As 150 heads of state and government signed the declaration of  Sustaianable Development Goals in New York the the global agenda for sustainable developments took off at Summit 2015.

Just Fifteen years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were agreed. These provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas. But the progress has been uneven, particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive health. We recommit ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focussed and scaled-up assistance to least developed countries and other countries in special situations, in line with relevant support programmes



Africa’s poverty rates have continued to decline, despite the adverse effects of the recent food, fuel, and global economic crisis, says “Assessing Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa”, produced annually by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the African Union Commission (AUC) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The SDGs, along with their targets (as well as indicators to be developed in 2016) will be binding on member states of the United Nations. It is governments' acknowledgement that the levels of poverty, environmental degradation and climate change as well as inequality of various dimensions, among others, are unacceptable and must be tackled as a matter of urgency in concerted global and national efforts. The SDGs in many tackle the "unfinished business" of the MDGs, in addition to new issues in development.

The United Nations stated that ''the new Goals and targets has come into effect on 1 January 2016 and will guide the decisions the UN take over the next fifteen years. All of us will work to implement the Agenda within our own countries and at the regional and global levels, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities We will respect national policy space for sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, in particular for developing states, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. We acknowledge also the importance of the regional and sub-regional dimensions, regional economic integration and interconnectivity in sustainable development.''

''We at the United Nations General Assembly support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action, the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway, the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the African Union’s Agenda 2063 and the programme of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), all of which are integral to the new Agenda. We recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict situations.


President Muhammad Buhari / Nigeria



The UN encourages ''all member states to develop as soon as practicable ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this Agenda. These can support the transition to the SDGs and build on existing planning instruments, such as national development and sustainable development strategies, as appropriate.'' (The United Nations, 2015) 

“We must adopt targeted interventions at both policy and practical levels, to address extreme poverty and combat illiteracy, hunger and diseases. We must create viable partnerships that bring together national, regional and global actors with shared objectives to carry this forward.

“We must also create the enabling environments for executing this global agenda, by developing the relevant frameworks for working with different types of partners and constituencies that recognize the contributions of civil society, religious and cultural bodies, private sector, academia and most importantly, governments. (The United Nations, 2015)



 The UN recognize that middle-income countries, including Nigeria still face significant challenges to achieve sustainable development. In order to ensure that achievements made to date are sustained, efforts to address ongoing challenges should be strengthened through the exchange of experiences, improved coordination, and better and focused support of the United Nations Development System, the international financial institutions, regional organizations and other stakeholders. 


@NBrisin for Nigeria will provide reliable database for achieving healthier life, better future targeted by Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, says @tony_uwa Dr Anthony Uwa, Head of BRISIN Implementation Committee.

Watch the director of @UNFPA @BabatundeUNFPA telling us how #GlobalGoals can help sustaining that future: Watch the  here:  YouTube -link : http://t.co/sSwwJUM8dt 

In addition to poverty and hunger, the global goals cover issues such as access to education, healthcare, energy, water and sanitation, as well as gender equality and action on climate change.
UN Secretary-General, Mr Ban Ki-Moon stressed that the Agenda focuses on growth and decent employment, while ensuring the preservation of the planet and the fight against climate change, taking into account the complexity and interconnected nature of today’s most vexing challenges.

“The Group of 77 and China has played an extremely important role in shaping this agenda. I am sure you will sustain the same enthusiasm and idealism as we move to implementation,” Mr. Ban said, committing the full support of the entire UN System.

“You need to act in your countries to build awareness and commitment to this agenda.” Ban Ki-moon emphasised.

The present unemployment level as well as the impossibility to reduce corruption, insecurity and injustice are consequences emanating from the lack of credible data and information infrastructure that has root to primary source.

Monitoring the economy and collecting VAT and Taxes on speculation and imaginations are incredible loopholes that can never produce change in Nigeria
All present data collection agencies for documentations in Nigeria such as 
NIMC, NIS, CBN, NCC, FRSC, Police/EFCC, INEC among others are secondary data collectors that should synergize with NpopC for data verification, even though NpopC`s population data is based on 10 years census.


The new Sustainable Development Goals agreed by UN Member States will seek to end poverty, while also taking into account environmental issues.

Veronica Reeves of the United Nations radio service during the live broadcast of the UN Summit reported that. : In what was called by the UN Secretary-General a "defining moment in human history", countries have adopted 17 new global goals that lay out an ambitious set of development objectives.
The adoption comes after intense negotiations as leaders sought to craft a framework that will address extreme poverty, while also putting in place safeguards for the environment.
In co-chairing the summit, the President of Uganda, Yoweri (U-weary) Museveni (Moo-sen-a-vee) said the new development agenda was designed to leave no one behind.
"Together, we are sending a powerful message to people in every village, every city, every nation worldwide – that we are committed to taking bold step to change their lives, for the better.", according to the United Nations.
 

Again, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, while addressing the Assembly called on both developed and developing nations to play their part. His speech demanded to enhance the productive capacity in developing countries, especially in the least developed countries.

The new programme, Transforming Our World: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development consists of a Declaration, 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets, a section on means of implementation and renewed global partnership, all seeking to build on and expand the eight Millennium Development Goals adopted at a UN summit in 2000.

BRISIN is the foundation for change which Federal Government is laying for a better Nigeria.


With the issuance of Nigerian Social Security Number (NSSN) starting with Federal Capital Territory, Abuja as pilot and carried out in all the Wards, Local Government, State and National levels so that before the 2026 census Nigeria will be in position to fast track to rapid developmentDr. Anthony Uwa, Head of Implementation and Technical Committee inaugurated by the Nigerian goverment said, all the social vices that has crippled development would be eradicated and data and information on citizen would be updated on daily bases and retrieved on a press of a button.

Dr  Anthony Uwa, the Head of Implementation and Technical Committee for BRISIN, briefed the newsmen in Abuja that Dermo Impex consulting company will use the available data to provide solid instrument for fighting social vices and for developing the nation’s economy.

“BRISIN in Nigeria is extra-vital because it is the only instrument that has no colour, religion, ethnicity or gender.

“It is the only instrument for strong and vibrant economy with monitoring and control system; reducing the gap between the rich and the poor,’’ he said.

According to Uwa, Nigeria is basically living on commerce and less production; the economy that cannot function well without BRISIN

 BRISIN was intended to register and capture the imagery of every Nigerian from the 8,812 ward level and the 36 states and the nation's capital city, Abuja.

Managing Director, News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), Ima Niboro, has commended Federal Government for commissioning Basic Registry and Information System in Nigeria (BRISIN), saying it would provide reliable data for economic development.

 Social Security Numbers for Nigerians, BRISIN Pilot Project Set To Commence In Abuja – BRISIN Committee

Head of Technical and Implementation Committee for BRISIN, Dr Anthony Uwa, has disclosed that the solution provider for the Federal Government on Basic Registry and Infornation System In Nigeria, Dermo Impex, the contracted Italian ICT company has taken tangiblle steps to extend sensitisation to the President Mohammad Buhari-led federal cabinet and the National Assembly. He disclosed this while receiving the newly appointed United Kingdom Representative for BRISIN, Prince Lashley Oladigbolu who paid a formal courtesy visit to Abuja BRISIN office on recently.

Explaining further Dr. Uwa said preparation is now in top gear for the issuance of Nigerian Social Security Number (NSSN) starting with Federal Capital Terrritory as pilot before rolling out same data and imagery capturing in all the Wards, Local Government, State and National levels so that before the 2026 census. 




 ‘The objectives of BRISIN system are finding a lasting solution to issues bordering on insecurity, insurgence, border control, corruption, un-employment, good governance, economic planning, social justice, rural development and fiscal and management policy among others'' according to the Letter of Mandate issued to the UK Representative for BRISIN. 

In his speech, the UK Representative for BRISIN, Prince Lashley Oladigbolu thanked Implementation Team for the privilege accorded him to serve his country in diaspora and assured that the mandate given him would be exercised to build solid foundation for change which the federal government is currently laying for a better Nigeria.

At the end of the meeting held with Prince Oladigbolu (13/01/2016)  in Maitama Sule Abuja Dr. Anthony Uwa, the Head of Implementation and Technical Committee for BRISIN, briefed newsmen that Dermo Impex consulting company will use the available data to provide solid instrument for fighting social vices and for developing the nation’s economy.



 Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals  (SDG's) through BRISIN


 Nigeria is fully aware and recognising that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities, to achieve sustainable development; 


The new world order, especially  on SDG 17 -17.8 that indicates ''fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology.''

 Kazeem Kolawole Raji, National Coordinator, ICT for BRISIN

Another indicator on 17.18 of the SDGs states that ''by 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts''.

While section 17.19 indicates that ''by 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries''

The future of humanity and of our planet lies in our hands. It lies also in the hands of today’s younger generation who will pass the torch to future generations. The new World Agenda has mapped the road to sustainable development; it will be for all of us, including Nigerians to ensure that the journey is successful and its gains irreversible.

At one of the BRISIN Sensitisation workshops across MDA's in Abuja, Nigeria, Sept., 2015
 The means of implementation targets under Goal 17 under each SDG are key to realising Basic Registration and Information System in Nigeria (BRISIN) and are of equal importance with the other Goals and targets. The World Agenda synchronises the basic needs to engage in primary data collection as expected to measure ways SDGs can be met within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development. BRISIN for Nigeria will be realisable as it comes to terms with the concrete policies and actions expected from Nigeria state and her citizens as outlined in the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, held in Addis Ababa from 13-16 July 2015. In relation to providing reliable statistical database the BRISIN in Nigeria is set to be implemented to strenghten the Goals, particularly, utilizing Goal 17 underscoring the use of Information and Communication Technology.  

Below explicitly explains the SDG in relation to implementation of BRISIN in Nigeria.

Goal 17: ''Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Data, monitoring and accountability 
Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared and income inequality is addressed. We will work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, in particular, and decent work for all.

''The UN will adopt policies which increase productive capacities, productivity and productive employment; financial inclusion; sustainable agriculture, pastoralist and fisheries development; sustainable industrial development; universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services; sustainable transport systems; and quality and resilient infrastructure. ( The United Nations, 2015)


The Sustainable Development Goals
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere 
  • Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture 
  • Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages 
  • Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 
  • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 
  • Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all 
  • Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all 
  • Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 
  • Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries 
  • Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts* 
  • Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 
  • Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

@NBrisin for Nigeria will provide reliable data base for achieving healthier life, better future targeted by Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, says @tony_uwa Dr Anthony Uwa, Head of BRISIN Implementation Committee. Watch the director of @UNFPA @BabatundeUNFPA tells us how #GlobalGoals can help sustaining that future: Watch it here:  http://t.co/sSwwJUM8dt


''This is a task that should have been accomplished decades ago. Now that it has fallen on our shoulders to discharge this responsibility, we should do so with the enthusiasm and commitment that is worthy of the cause''.Source: United Nations


 Lashley Oladigbolu, the United Kingdom Representative for BRISIN and Acting President for NUJ Europe as well as  an accredited Journalist for World Bank Online Media Briefing Centre contributed to this report.

Credit: The UN/Nigeria

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